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Symbol: Symbol: Dpp {Links} Flybase ID: {Flybase_ID}
Synonyms: {Name} {GadFly}
Function: {Short_Function} {LocusLink}
Keywords: {Keywords} {Interactive_Fly}

  • A secreted TGF-b family member
Genetic interactions
  • The amount of Dpp protein secreted from the AP border dictates the position at which vein 2 forms (Sturtevant, 1997)
  • Can exert a long-range organizing influence on surrounding wing tissue, specifying anterior or posterior patterning depending on the compartmental provenance, and hence the state of en activity, of the responding cells (Burke, 1999)
  • During the 3rd larval instar Dpp activates genes: omb and sal, at distinct threshold levels to create nested domains of transcription factor expression across the wing
  • Hh signaling
    • Expression is lost in ci clones missing the transactivation domain (Hepker, 1999)
    • In smo clones (no Hh signaling) dpp-lacZ, Ptc and anterior En expression is inhibited, suggesting that they are direct targets for regulation by Hh signaling (Strigini, 1997)
  • in Pka-C1 mutants in the anterior compartment Col, Ptc, and En are up regulated but only at some distance away from the DV boundary (Figs. 3A-3C) (Glise, 2002)
    • did not observe any modulation of dpp-lacZ staining along the DV axis, possible do to perdurance of B-galactosidase (Glise, 2002)
Physical interactions
{Physical interactions}
Transcriptional Regulation
  • Dpp-lacZ is expressed in a stripe several cells anterior to the lineage boundary, and did not define or overlap into the posterior lineage compartment (Blair, 1992)
  • Mutant clones lacking both en and invected ectopically express dpp-lacZ and ptc in the posterior compartment where dpp activity ordinarily is repressed (Sanicola, 1995)
  • A minimal dpp disc enhancer was able to respond to the full length and repressor forms of Ci and that their activities can br replaced by a single synthetic Gli-binding site (Muller, 2000)
  • Expression in all imaginal discs is dependent on a 30kb 3’cis regulatory region, the disc region
  • En fxns as a transcriptional repressor in this region
    • dpp heldout (dppho) is a 358 bp wing- and haltere-specific element within the disc region
    • expression is spatially determined by dTCF, GLI/Ci, the Vestigial/Scalloped selector system, and temporally controlled by dpp autoregulation (Hepker, 1999)
  • contain GLI/Ci consensus binding sites, which are required (Hepker, 1999)
  • dpp transcription is regulated by a combination of Ci[act] and Ci[rep] activities (Methot, 1999)
  • The carboxy-terminal 100 amino acids have 25-40% homology to human and porcine TGFbeta, Inhibin A and Inhibin B. The homologous region is preceded by three arginine dimers that each function as proleolytic cleavage sites.
Location (protein and transcript)
  • secreted
  • dpp expression is not up regulated in the central row of cells corresponding to the prospective wing margin (Fig 1N). This region of refractory to Hh signaling exists along the entire DV boundary. See (Glise, 2002)
Protein Modifications and Regulation
Related to
{Related to}
Overexpression / Ectopic expression


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